Tag Archives: SAVES

Beef Cattle Fattening for Eid ul Adha

An entrepreneur to harvest superfluous income

Karachi is the hub of the economic activities of Pakistan. The home of many industries and business offices, Karachiates spend extra money to buy unique and special items. The people of Karachi buy charming and beautiful bulls for qurbani (Eid ul Adha) Islamic ritual and pay many times more money for this purpose.IMG_1618 IMG_1574

They like beautiful animals with more beef. They prefer polled animals with attractive colors. Usually, native breeds like Thari, Bhagnari, Cholistani, Lohani etc are preferred but a new phenomenon also exists as buying exotic beef cattle. The beef animal having white eye lashes and white muzzles are highly liked in the qurbani market. The whole white body is rather more acceptable.

Karachi is the biggest market for such animals in Pakistan. It was revealed in a visit to Sind Dairy Farm that each dairy farm is producing beef animal for this special market. They either fattens their own male calves produced at farm or buy male beautiful calves from country side to hunt this market. They buy bulls/steers from the pastoralist communities like Dajal, Tharri, Rojhan etc. They dehorn such bull at the farm while using clutch wire. I felt such method very cruel and harmful for the animals. Some animals were found with wounds and pus because of dehorning with such a cruel method.

Only Sindh Dairy Farm sold 500 bulls for qurbani last year in Karachi market. We noticed that yearling male (12-15 month of age) were in a very good healthy having a weight of almost 600 kg. They have 100 beef animal, comprising of many breeds, i.e Rojhan, Dajal, Bhagnarri, Cholistani, Jersy, Belgium black, Simmental, Angus, and Hereford.

They regularly weigh their animal at monthly intervals and offer good and nutritious TMR.

This entrepreneur is a unique of its kind and provide opportunities to the commercial dairy farmers to harvest extra money and sustain profitable business. A comprehensive study is the utmost need of time to portrait the flow diagram and the income etc.

Modern Reproductive Technology in Commercial Dairy Farm in Karach

As discussed in the previous blog;

https://camel4all.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/commercial-dairying-in-karachi-city-of-pakistan/

The farm is practImageicing embryo transfer technology at the farm. They have already produced 12 male and 8 female calves (now in breeding age). They have some more females with lesser ages. The embryo of HF was used for this purpose and the recipient mother was from Cholistani cattle.

The embryo was from the HF breed with milk production potential of 120 liter. The heifers produced with ET technology were then inseminated with the semen of RIVER bull. Embryo transfer technology was facilitated by military dairy farm Okara Pakistan.

The calves born at the farm are now well acclimatizing with the prevailing conditions and weathering temperature. They also use sexed semen only for good heifers and first calver. The cows with more parity are not suited to sex semen because of low success rate. They buy semen of the CRI Company through Altaf and Sons Company of Pakistan.

Policy Level Initiatives are Needed for Camel Milk in Pakistan

When I started my camel research in 2005, very scares or few information were available on camel in Pakistan. Very few among the city dwellers were aware about the peculiarities of camel milk, especially milk. There we no information available as separate entity on camel milk in government economic survey etc. Camel milk was considered as other milk than cow and buffalo.

The policy makers were completely blank about camel and its role in Pakistan. I completed my research/thesis of PhD on this unique animal and proved its value as a live animal, role of products and also role in culture and heritage. The camel is getting more and more importance. Pakistani camel are now well documented in breeds and their worth is well defined. Now there are many people who know about camel importance in the cities also. The camel herders already knew it since centuries. My article on camel as unique and fascinating animal played pivotal role in camel promotion.

http://saves.org.pk/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2&Itemid=20

Yesterday I visited a camel milk shop in Karachi. It was a great pleasure for me to see a shop with camel milk. The camel is the next supper food indeed and I’m glad that the general public awareness in this regard is increasing. I am so proud and confident of my voice as strong and loud.

2012 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

4,329 films were submitted to the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. This blog had 17,000 views in 2012. If each view were a film, this blog would power 4 Film Festivals

Click here to see the complete report.

Smallscale livestock keeping – a sustainable future?

Livestock keeping is often portrayed as a pathway out of poverty, particularly for the landless poor. However, in recent years, concern has grown that standard approaches to poverty alleviation for livestock keepers are failing to produce the promised benefits, with producers facing increasing challenges from land grabbing, cheap imports and climate change.

In response, the League for Pastoral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development (LPP) has advocated the need for a new approach, re-examining the notion of growth and how to support sustainable livestock development. In September 2012, a conference on ‘Livestock Futures’, organised by the LPP in Bonn, Germany, gave an opportunity for livestock keepers and international experts to share their visions for the livestock sector and how to set it on a sustainable path. Several participants also shared their views with New Agriculturist.

Importance of smallscale systems

The first role of the smallscale livestock keeper is that they conserve precious biodiversity, precious livestock breeds which are highly adaptable, which produce in a very low input system, which are resistant to many challenges. And second role they are producing high quality food items for the society, for the people. And thirdly they are the sign of our heritage, our culture; they attract tourists in the form of eco-tourism.
Abdul Raziq Kakar, SAVES, Pakistan

The future of livestock depends on the future of livestock keepers. The importance of their contribution to food security and the economies of the countries where they raise their animals is tremendous. The value of animal trade has gone from US$250 million to US$1 billion in Africa in recent years.
Getachew Gebru, MARIL research and development organisation, Kenya and Ethiopia

 Many small livestock keepers are women

I discovered this interesting fact: the average size of dairy herd in the world is just three cows. You see how many small herds there must be? Small scale involves so, so many people. Large scale involves very few. We need to appreciate the role of the small scale and what they do for consumers and what we should be doing to help them.

Wolfgang Bayer, AGRECOL, Germany

I think small livestock keepers play a very important role in developing countries, in generating income for the families. Mostly the small livestock keepers are women and when the women get some income they take care of their family, their children and also resolve poverty in our local areas.
Nouhoun Zampaligre (Burkina Faso), PhD student, University of Kassel, Germany

I think they have an important role in preserving local breed biodiversity and helping us to understand how multi-functional agriculture and livestock keepers can be. The smallscale producers have more criteria, not only money or production of milk or meat; they have traditions, they have culture and other things which are very important to preserve.
Maria Rosa Lanari, National Institute for Agricultural Technology, Argentina

Pressures and policy failures

There’s not enough attention to what’s happening in livestock. Not enough attention on how we can link smallholders to market. The demand is from cities looking for cheap goods and it is likely that the smaller scale producers will be excluded because of the economies of scale and distance. Growth in Africa in recent years has been 6-7%. But the increase in demand is not being met by smallholders. It comes from imports. How do we tackle this?
Henning Steinfeld, FAO

 Smallscale livestock keepers are facing increasing challenges from land grabbing, cheap imports and climate change

In the pastoral system you have the people, you have the animals, you have the natural resources. That is where we usually fail. We either just take the livestock and work on it or we take the natural resource and work on it. We do not have this holistic approach. And secondly we need to be able to see how, when you change one factor you are also affecting the other, but we fail to understand how that is impacting.
Getachew Gebru, MARIL, Ethiopia

Livestock keepers’ rights need to be recognised. Our contribution to the creation and maintenance of animal genetic resources is not widely appreciated. Sometimes I feel depressed that every pastoralist community faces the same problems but that is what makes it necessary to find solutions at international level, at national level, right down to local officials.
Hanwant Singh, Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan (LPPS), Rajasthan, India

Policies do not support the poorest at all, not anywhere: not in Pakistan, not in Europe, not in America, not in Canada. The national governments, the international people they are looking for mega projects for big things to be visible, to get more support. But our lands are being grabbed; our ways are discouraged; with climate change there are new diseases. Everything is against us so we need the support of national and international bodies to survive.
Abdul Raziq Kakar, SAVES

Strategies and solutions

For me a key step is the provision of credit to entrepreneurs to set up facilities such as a processing plant close to the producing areas. The livestock keepers will then have a reliable, convenient market for what they produce and with the new income they look after their family’s needs and then look after their livestock better and improve their health and productivity. They buy more from local feed mills and other suppliers and the benefits are shared.
Nancy Abeiderrahmane, Tiviski Camel Milk Dairy, Mauritania

 Reliable, convenient livestock markets are important

Smallholders in developing countries must clearly identify the benefits of these production systems. How can you measure these benefits and how can you use them to access the markets? We need to convince the consumer that this is important, to buy these things for their quality and the quality of their processing.

Ernesto Reyes, livestock economist, Agri Benchmark, Mallorca

For Dutch farmers the solutions lie in restoration of soil fertility; the optimisation of the farm as a whole rather then the maximisation of one single product; to sell direct or add value; to diversify the farmer’s work and income; re-value local and dual-purpose breeds. I believe in livestock production globally there needs to be a ‘technology leap’ where developing countries can learn from what has happened in highly industrialised animal production sectors.
Katrien van’t Hooft, Tradinova, Netherlands

There are good signs of regional collaboration. I see it starting in Africa, to regionally work together for example to control transboundary diseases that afflict so many smaller and poor livestock keepers. These initiatives are good but we need more.
Getachew Gebru, MARIL

Listening and engaging

The smallholders, the pastoral people, they have no representation in the parliament. They have no political power. They are living in far flung areas so they have no participation at policy level. They are not asked when the policy is formalised. The utmost need is to take smallholders on board while formulating any policy relating to animal genetic resources, related to livestock production systems.

Abdul Raziq Kakar

 

Derived from the report of new agriculturist; available in the link below.Image

http://www.new-ag.info/en/pov/views.php?a=2809#s1

 

Resilience of Native livestock to climate change in the context of Mongolia

A friend through DAD-Net email list commented on the pastoral livestock of Mongolia Image

in the context of climate change.

“Scientists of many countries agree that more than 60% of natural disasters occurred worldwide are associated with global climatic change. The air temperature around the surface of earth increased by 1.50C in the last 50 years but same time air temperature of Mongolia increased by 4.10C.  Therefore climate warming in Mongolia takes a place at faster rate by 3 times as compared to global warming. Climate change comes as an additional factor affecting a livestock sector that is already highly dynamic and facing many challenges.

What are adverse impacts of climatic changes and warming on animal husbandry in Mongolia?

Researchers consider that climate changes and global warming exert its effects on animal husbandry in Mongolia in the following ways:

1.      We are observing and herders are lamentably talking about that of more than 2800 plant species grown in approximately 113 million ha rangelands of our country, more than 600 species are seen to be important for animal nutrition, but species of plants edible by livestock in any provinces are decreasing in the last years, instead of them Artemisia spp and weed plants inedible by animals are prevailing, and values of pastures are declining.

2.      Number of rivers, streams, ponds and lakes, which were main sources of drinking water of rural people and animals, are drying off, ground water levels are lowering, and it exerts adverse impacts on water supply for both human populations and rangelands. For example, according to 2007 hydrological recording, 852 rivers, 2277 springs, 1181 lakes and ponds and more than mineral water sources were dried off.

3.      Extreme warming results in lowering ground water level. It has adverse impacts on water supply of both human and animals and its guarantee.  The lowering ground water level reveals the risk of drying off artisan wells and on the other hand construction of motorized wells will be more expensive.

4.      In association with warming, there has been a tendency of increasing evaporation rate of earth surface moisture and intensification of acidification. In other words, precipitation is not sufficient to compensate soil moisture loss. It exerts adverse effects on pasture production and carrying capacity.

5.      Sharp changes are occurring in annual precipitation characteristics and distributions. Although total amount of annual precipitations does not drop in most areas, scientists are proving and warning about changes of precipitation characters, distributions and effects on soil and plants. For example, during 1960-1980, drizzling rains lasted for days, rain water is absorbed deeply into soil and reached plant roots, and pasture vegetation was greater, while recent years, mostly heavy showers occur and cause flooding due to lack of absorbing rain water into soil. Precipitation becomes less in May or June, when pasture plants are intensively growing. As a consequence, real condition of revival of natural pastures with shorter period of summer and autumn seasons, and formation of sufficient reserves of pasture plants to be used for winter and spring seasons cannot be provided regularly. As well, it has been observed that more frequent snowfalls, periodical colds and snow and dust storms in winter and spring in the last years than previous years have a tendency to encompass broader areas and be common characters.

6.      In 2009 report of climatic change, there are facts about that Mongolian livestock body is becoming smaller and their productivity is reducing in the last years due to above mentioned real situations, which are adverse consequences of global climatic changes. According to survey of more than 40 meteorological stations located in various natural and climatic regions of our country, weight of native Mongolian cattle dropped by 14-19 kg, sheep and goats by 7-8 kg, and wool yield of sheep decreased by approximately 90 g, which should not be left without paying attentions. Recent years, favorable periods of summer and autumn are curtailed or last approximately 100-120 days, whereas severe winter and spring periods increased or last 220-240 days.

7.      Native Mongolian livestock populations, which are raised in pasture for all year round, are emaciated and exhausted due to the following 5 reasons:

  • a.       Pasture plant production reduces during winter and spring seasons
  • b.      Duration of grazing on the pasture decreases.
  • c.       Pasture plant nutritive values decrease.
  • d.      Pasture plant digestibility reduces.
  • e.       Feed consumption for pregnant and lactating animals increases.

Scientists demonstrated that pastoral livestock are able to eat only about 40-50% of their daily feed intake because production, digestibility and nutritive value of pasture plants, and grazing length decrease during winter and spring. On the other hand, nutritive demands (nutrients, minerals and biologically active matters) of pregnant and lactating animals increase sharply during winter and spring. Demands of nutrients, minerals and biologically active matters of pregnant and lactating animals are greater by 30-40% as compared to male animals, barren females and early pregnant animals.

8.      Extreme warming exerts adverse impacts on livestock comfortable pasture grazing. According to surveys and estimations of competent authorities and scientists it has a tendency of increasing drastically number of very hot days due to climatic changes. It means there are undesired impacts on animal welfare, body conditions and milk yields, young animal body growth and development, animal body resistance, and finally preparation of animals for wintering. Generally, summer warming above 200C has adverse effects on livestock grazing, resulting in gathering in groups, searching shadowy places, laying down and standing instead of active grazing, and therefore hindering pasture grazing of animals. Despite pasture grazing length in summer and autumn seasons is 13-14 hours; the most active grazing period is only 3-5 hours as reported by researchers. Hence it means this period will be shorter due to extreme warming in summer and autumn.

9.      In territories of any provinces and villages it is observed that lack of precipitations during summer and autumn results in drop of hay field and pasture plant productions and reduction of numbers of palatable plants with higher nutritive values and capable to be kept sufficiently in the pasture during winter and spring. In other words it means values of pasture are decreasing due to warming effects.

10.  Snowfalls during winter have been greater in the last decade and a common tendency that it will further increase, majority of annual precipitations occur in the form of snowfall during winter and spring seasons, while rain will be rare during  May and June, which are months of pasture plant active growth, is now being found.

  In conclution

 1.      Climate warming in Mongolia takes place at faster rate by 3 times as compared to global warming;

2.      Pastoral animal husbandry of Mongolia is under naturally risky situations for all year round.”

Jiige  (the nickname of Mongolian friend)