Morak Goat Breed

Habitat: Chaghai Kharan desert especially Raskoh mountains of the region are the home tract of the breed. The breed is very close to its wild ancestors. There are many tribes, rearing this breed of goat, which are Badeni, Muhammad Hasani, Maingul, Jamaldini, Sasoli, Sanjrai, Nothezi, Nausherwani, Malangzai, Siafad, Faqirzai, Hajizai,.

Phenotypic characteristics: The goat has medium size with black body coat, very rare specimen with white color is also found. The long curled horns, especially in male with beard are the salient feature of the breed. The goat also produce reasonable amount of milk.

Vegetation: Vegetation of the area like by the goat is tree like Ghaz (Tamarix Articula), shrub like Taghaz (Haloxylon Amodendron), bushes like Hashwarg (Rhozya Stricta), Pog (Calegnum Polygonaides) Cotor (Stockcia Brohinca), Lara (Salsola Kali), Kandar (Alhogi Camelarum), Barshonk, Karwankush, Narronk (Salsola Arbuscula), Tusso (Gaillaina Aucheri) and grasses like Mughair (Atriplex Dimprphostegium), Kash (Sacchorum Siliare), Righith (Suoeda Monica) Shanaluk (Allium Rubellum). etc.

Population: Population of the breed is almost 0.5 million. The population trend is increasing. Morak breed is one of the badly affected goat breed in the province by last drought, as the drought was very severe in this ecological zone.

Traits special:

  • Close to its wild ancestors
  • It is very accessible to inaccessible areas for grazing, i.e. the peaks of the mountains
  • The animal is very alert and fast running, hence can’t be eaten by pest and predators. More close to wild ancestors
  • High milk production in harsh environment of the region in a very low input system of the ordinary grazing

Option Hopes: Close relation to its wild ancestors.

Economic importance: The most important breed for livelihood earning of the pastoral livestock keepers of the region. It provide milk in the harsh environment when the sheep milk yield ceased. It also provides cash by selling it, when the livestock keepers need cash money. The animal may attain good weight and attract good prices because of its more meat and height..

Kharani Camel Breed of Chaghai-Kharan Desert

Kharani camel

Kharani camel is found in the desert ecosystem of the Chaghai Kharan desert ecological zone. Kharani camel is one of the important camel breed, well adapted to desert ecosystem and play pivotal role in the socioeconomic and socio-cultural life of the pastoral people of that region. The breed has very deep roots in the culture of the Baloch tribes.

Production systems and socioeconomic importance

The majority of the herds of camel are owned by nomadic and smi-nomadic herders. In winter time the nomadic and semi-nomadic owners migrate towards the east, up to Bolan area of the province. After the rainy season of moon soon in July and August, abundant vegetation is available there. The small stockers are mostly sedentary owners provide supplementation in the winter season because of the low or even no vegetation availability in the region.

Kharani camel is one of the best milk producers in the world and produce up to 40 litter of milk per day. The milk is widely used in the region and therefore having high consumer preference. The milk is being used fresh, soured (Sorain) and added in tea. Sorain is highly preferred and can be store for up to one week without refrigeration. The same methodology is use in the countries of Central Asia and the product is known as camel Vodka locally.

Population size and trend

The population size estimated ranges from 9000 to 13000 and there is a speedy decline in the population. There are many factors responsible for this sad stat of situation, i.e. illegal export to Iran both male and female animals, threat to the ecosystem of Kharani breed because of the deforestation and some herders now practice cross breeding to produce Rodbari camel which is a good race animal in desert. Such cross bred animal is highly liked by the smugglers which is being use for drug trafficking in the triangle of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.

Breeding goal of the breed

The main breeding goal of the Kharani camel breeders is to produce camel with high milk yield. The second major breeding goal is to produce camel well adapted to the desert ecosystem. The male camel is selected for breeding with the characteristics of higher milk, adaptation in the desert ecosystem, boor or fawn color. Curly wool and hanging muzzle. The camel is medium in size with long black eye lashes. Long legs, neck and oval foot pads are the salient feature of the breed. There are two special traits of the breed, i.e. milk production ability, drought resistant and hardy against the high ambient temperature of the deserted ecosystem.

Table Biometric parameters of Kharani breed (cm)

Body measurements Male Female Mean
Head length 40 39 39.50
Head width 20 19.50 19.25
Weather height 175 175.5 19.75
Thoracic girth 197 202 175.25
Abdominal girth 231 250.7 199.5
Tail length 60 54.7 240.85
Ear length 11 11 57.35
Ear width 6.5 6.7 11
Neck length 90 96.2 6.6
Rump length 143.5 146.9 93.1
Estimated weight 398 444 145.2

Table Reproductive and productive traits of the Kharani Camel

No Traits Values
Male Female
1 Average birth Weight 30-40 kg 31 – 35 kg
2 Average weaning Weight* 165-180 kg. 155 – 180 kg
5 Ready for workload 3 yr 3 yr
7 Use for heavy duty 7-8 yr -
8 Age of puberty 4 yr 2.5-3 yr
9 Average work life 25 yr -
10 Average reproductive life 25 ye 21 yr
11 Conception rate out of herd - 50-53%
12 Gestation  period - 375-386 day
13 Calving rate out of herd - 45-50%
14 Calving interval - 2 yr
15 Average milk production - 17 kg/day
16 Lactation length - 10-12 month
17 Wool Production - 2 kg

Special traits of the breed

v  High milk yield in the hostile desert conditions

v  Resistant to trypanosomiasis.

v  Highly drought tolerant

 

Phenotypic characteristics

Except some non-descript camel majority of the camel population is composed of the Kharani breed. The name of this breed is derived from the famous Kharan desert. This breed is also called as Boor locally because of its colour (Fawn) as presented in figure. There are many color patterns in the Kharani camel. The pastoral people know the importance of the color of a breed and correlate it with the specific trait. The colors are fawn, red brown, white and yellow. Phenotypic characteristics are given in table.

Reproductive and productive performance

Male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 2.5-3 years. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 week. Calving interval is normally two years and average reproductive life of a female is about 20 years. Weight of the calf at the birth is almost 30-40 kg, depending upon the sex, nutritional and health status of the dam. Weaning weight at (12 month) is about 165-180 kg. The reproductive performance of the Kharani camel is presented in table 10.

Marketing and future economic potential

The respondents stated that the animals are sold in the local market of the town and rarely sell locally. The owners are really wise and had almost eliminated the role of middle man. Though, the town merchant and butcher don’t pay good prices to the owners. Some smugglers buy local livestock at cheap prices and smuggle it to Iran and earn handsome money. The high milk yield is one of the best economic potential of this breed.